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Reconstructive surgery can physically and functionally enhance abnormal structures of the body, caused by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease. Generally, reconstructive surgery is performed to improve functions, but may also be performed to achieve a normal appearance. Trauma reconstructive surgery is generally covered by most health insurance policies, although coverage for specific procedures and the levels of coverage may vary depending on the healthcare provider.


Facial trauma can result from a penetrating or blunt injury, such as those from gunshots, physical altercations, and motor vehicle accidents. Trauma can result in severe damage to the skin, underlying skeleton, the nasal and oral lining, and dental structures. Depending upon the extent of injuries, patients with facial trauma may be cared for by a team of specialists that includes a plastic surgeon, neurosurgeon, oral surgeon, orthodontist, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, psychologist and nurse. The goals of trauma reconstructive surgery differ from those of cosmetic surgery. Trauma reconstructive surgery is performed on abnormal structures of the body caused by trauma or injury. Burn wounds, lacerations, growths, and aging problems are considered acquired deformities, in which trauma reconstructive surgery may be necessary. Some patients may find that a procedure commonly thought to be aesthetic in nature may be performed to achieve a reconstructive goal. For example, an adult whose face has an asymmetrical look because of paralysis might have a balancing facelift. Although appearance is enhanced, the main goal of the trauma reconstructive surgery is to restore function.


Techniques for breast reduction vary, but the most common procedure involves an anchor-shaped incision that circles the areola, extends downward, and follows the natural curve of the crease beneath the breast.


The repair to a cleft lip, involves a surgeon making an incision on either side of the cleft from the mouth into the nostril. Muscle function and the normal "cupid's bow" shape of the mouth are restored. The nostril deformity often associated with cleft lip may also be improved at the time of lip repair or in a later surgery.


Cleft Palate Surgery rebuilds the palate, joining muscle together and providing enough length in the palate so the child can eat and learn to speak properly.


Reduces enlarged, female-like breast in men using liposuction and/or cutting out excess glandular tissue.


Burns or other injuries resulting in the loss of a large area of skin may form a scar that pulls the edges of the skin together, a process called contraction. The resulting contracture may affect the adjacent muscles and tendons, restricting normal movement.


Finger Tip Injuries, Animal Bites, Flexor Tendon Injuries, Extensor Tendon Injuries, Nerve Injuries, Hand Fractures, Hand Tumors, Ganglion Cysts, Nail Bed injuries, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Dupuytren’s Disease, Rheumatoid Diseases of the Hand.


There are several ways to make a facial scar less noticeable. Often it is simply cut out and closed with tiny stitches, leaving a thinner, less noticeable scar.


Z-plasty is a surgical technique used to reposition a scar so that it more closely conforms to the natural lines and creases of the skin, where it will be less noticeable. It can also relieve the tension caused by contracture.


Skin grafts and flaps are more serious than other forms of scar surgery. They are more likely to be performed in a hospital as inpatient procedures, using general anesthesia. The treated area may take several weeks or months to heal, and a support garment or bandage may be necessary for up to a year.


Most skin cancers are removed surgically, by a plastic surgeon or a dermatologist. If the cancer is small, the procedure can be done quickly and easily, in an outpatient facility or the physician's office, using local anesthesia.


(Creating new skin from existing skin) Tissue expansion is a procedure that enables the body to "grow" extra skin by stretching adjacent tissue.